This tutorial is dedicated to Redstone. Here I will tell you how it works and what can be made of it.
There are links to Minecraft Wiki and Wikipedia in the tutorial so that you can learn interesting things in more detail.
Redstone (Redstone) is also a red stone – this is a block that is found underground, at about the same height as the diamonds (10). When destroyed, 4 – 5 units of red dust falls out of it. Often red dust is also called Redstone.
With the help of red dust, you can draw paths on the ground. Along the paths, as by wires, a signal may spread. Without increased, the signal can be transmitted to 15 blocks, but if you add another 1 piece of red dust, then it will no longer be active. Thus, each piece of redstone can be in 16 states: 1 – 15 – active and 0 – inactive.
It is possible to conduct a redstone signal through blocks, but not any. The block should be complete and opaque. For example: earth, cobblestone, stone brick will do, and glass, steps and fence – no. Let’s call the blocks that can be made by the redstone signal – andquot;conductingandquot;.
Each block has two parameters:
– Power of the Redstone signal on it (number from 0 to 15).
– Is the block activated strongly (yes/no)
Highly activated blocks are sources of the signal as a red torch or a redstone block, and vice versa: the signal sources are considered highly activated blocks.
Conducting blocks, unlike red dust, can become sources of signal. However, the torch and block of red stone are power sources 15, and the conducting unit can be a source of a signal of any level.
Distinguish a strongly activated power block 0 from the usually activated power unit 0 cannot. Therefore, these two states can be considered the same state – the block is inactive.
Table of possible states of blocks:
For clarity, we will denote activated blocks – pink hair, not activated – white wool, but highly activated blocks (signal sources) – red hair.
Blocks of red dust differ among themselves, depending on how they are installed. And not only in appearance. The way they work. A piece of Redstone has andquot;The endsandquot;.
The screenshot shows the ends for the piece that is located on green wool. The ends are indicated by the semi – blocks of brick. The only piece of Redstone (point) has 5 ends, and in the end line 2 of the end, and the one that has only 1 on the bend andquot;endandquot;.
How Redstone activates blocks?
Only blocks that are located on such andquot;endsandquot; activated when the Redstone itself is active. The block under the redstone is always activated, no matter how the Redstone is installed, so green blocks are also considered andquot;endsandquot;. In this case, the level of activation andquot;The endsandquot; exactly the same as a piece of red dust. That is, the signal power does not decrease, passing through the blocks. It decreases only if the signal passes from the Redstone to the Redstone. Repeaters and comparators also do not reduce the signal power.
Demonstration which blocks were activated:
Blocks under the redstone are also considered andquot;endandquot;:
How the Redstone itself is activated?
A piece of Redstone becomes active if:
1) there is an activated piece of Redstone nearby (6 adjacent blocks) or a step above/below.
(the signal power becomes 1 smaller)
The signal can be transmitted to the step higher, even if the path blocks andquot;specialandquot; block (see. below).
2) next to it there is a block – source of the signal.
(the signal power becomes the same as that of the block)
(highly activated blocks can be found only with the help of the redstone)
Blocks that are above and under the redstone are also considered andquot;nearandquot;.
The screenshot shows that the Redstone does not light from the activated block, but is lit from the signal source block (the repeater activates the block in front of it). It is not necessary for the block – source to be andquot;endandquot;. Redstone, located on the bend and in the middle of the line, is also activated.
The red torch, like ordinary, cannot hang in the air. It must be attached to some block. The red torch can be in two states: turned on and off (and not in 16 states, like red dust and blocks).
The red torch lights up if the block to which it is attached is inactive. If this block is activated (strongly or usually), the red torch goes out.
When the red torch burns, it itself becomes a source of the signal (with a capacity of 15), and makes the block above itself a signal source (with a power of 15) (if it andquot;conductiveandquot;).
The signal by the Redstone is transmitted instantly. The torch does not change its condition right away, but after about 0.1 sec.
A torch that is very often switches andquot;burn outandquot; – goes out for a while, even if you remove the signal from the block to which it is attached.
[u]Block of red stone[/u]
How the block of red stone differs from the torch?
The red stone block is always a source of the signal and never turns off, it can be moved with pistons, and it does not make the block a signal source above itself.
Some blocks are not andquot;conductingandquot;, But they can be put on them redstone. These are: upper semi – blocks, light stone, funnel, upside down steps. Sometimes it is useful. Anyway that you are doing a raverstone hanging in the air.
Svetocardy – the most strange of the blocks.
You can still put repeaters, comparators and torches on the steps, semi – blocks and funnel, but you can’t. The game shows that the light – stone staged diagonally blocks the Redstone, but in fact it is not so:
Using special blocks, you can branch the signal, as well as make paths that are very close, but do not affect each other:
Signal transmission up/down
The easiest way to pass the signal up or down is to make a screw staircase and lay a path from Redstone along it.
However, there are more cunning ways that allow you to transmit a signal to a larger height and require less space.
Method 1: ladder from andquot;specialandquot; blocks. Thus, you can transmit the signal only from the bottom up.
Method 2: Red torches columns.
The repeater simply draws a signal through itself and strengthens it, but only in one direction.
Like the red torch, the repeater of the 2nd status: turned on and off.
The repeater turns on if:
1) at the entrance there is an activated block (strongly/usually and any power).
2) the signal from another repeater or comparator was supplied to the input.
In the repeater, you can configure the delay in the operation: from 0 to 3 clicks (0.1 – 0.4 seconds):
If the repeater is turned on and the conducting block is located in front of it, then this block becomes a signal source (15). If the redstone is in front of the repeater, then it becomes active (15). The repeater block itself does not become activated.
The repeater can be blocked. In blocked mode, the repeater does not change its condition, even if you remove/put the signal source at its input:
The repeater is only blocked if the signal from another repeater is supplied to it on the side.
Other methods are not suitable:
The light sensor is a strongly activated block and can be in 16 states (1 – 15 and 0).
In light sensor, the signal power changes throughout the day.
The maximum level is at noon (15), the minimum – at midnight (0).
The exact behavior of the light sensor can be viewed on this graphics:
Lever, buttons, wooden and stone pressure plate, stretch sensor.
All of them work the same way: when the block of the switch itself and the block, to which it is attached, become sources of the signal (with a power of 15).
The wooden button has more signal duration than the stone and it can work from the arrows.
At a wooden pressing plate, the signal duration is the same as the stone and it can work from arrows, fishing rods and abandoned objects.
The stretch sensor works from any essence that fell on the thread.
Breeded pressure plates work somewhat differently:
They become themselves and make the block under the signal, the power of which depends on the number of objects located on the plate.
The dependence of the signal power on the number of objects can be found from the table:
Why are weighed pressure plates be needed? To count items, if, for example, you are making a slot machine and a minimum rate – 10 glasses of blocks. You can assemble objects with a pressure plate by driving a trolley with Hopper on it.
Blocks responding to the redstone signal (signal receivers)
Relotant, a musical block, pistons, dynamite, doors, hatch, gate, ejector (dropper), boot funnel (hopper) and lamp are triggered if:
1) next to the receiver there is an activated block (usually or strongly).
2) an attempt was made to activate the receiver itself (usually or strongly).
The loading funnel when activated turns off (it stops taking and give objects).
Pistons, distributor and ejector can work if:
1) the block above the receiver is powered in any way (from the redstone, repeater or comparator).
At the same time, the type of block is not important, the receiver will work, even if you power the air block above it.
2) in the block per step above (shown by glass) a red torch was lit.
Thanks to this property, you can make continuous walls from controlled pistons and distributors.
3) the block per step above is an activated block (usually or strongly) and a block has been updated next to the receiver.
Most of the block renewal detectors are based on this (Do).
If you remove the Redstone signal, then andquot;receiverandquot; it does not turn off immediately, but also after updating the block.
The comparator is somewhat similar to the repeater: it draws a signal only one direction and it has a delay (about 0.05 seconds), but unlike the repeater, it does not enhance the signal. Instead, it regulates the power of the signal at the output.
The comparator has three entrances and one exit. The one indicated by blue wool is called the main entrance, and indicated by green wool – additional entrances.
The comparator can work in two modes: in comparison mode and in subtraction mode. The torch in the front of the comparator shows the mode of its operation. If the torch does not burn (by default) – this is the comparison mode, and if it burns, the deduction mode.
We denote the signal levels at the comparator’s entrances:
If the signal is supplied immediately to two additional entrances, then one maximum is selected from them: b = max (c, d)
In comparison mode, the comparator gives a signal to the output only if the signal is larger at the main input than on the additional, or they are equal.
In the deduction mode, he does the same, only the power of the signal at the output is not the same as at the entrance, but is equal to the difference andquot;basicandquot; – andquot;additionalandquot;.
The main task of the comparator is to determine the percentage of containers. A container is a block inside which you can put an item. Containers are: chest, stove, hob, ejector, distributor, loading funnel and player (the edge of the edge is not counted). If, for example, connect a chest to the comparator, then when the chest is empty, the signal at the comparator’s input will be 0, if the chest is completely clogged, then the signal at the entrance will be 15. The comparator, connected in this way, continues to perform its functions: comparison and subtraction. The comparator can read the signal from the container through one conducting block. If you connect the pressure rails to the comparator, then it will read the completeness of the trolley, which is worth it on these rails.
[u]How the boot funnel works[/u]
The loading funnel takes the discarded objects that fell into the block space above it, or from the container that is above it. Then she puts them in a container to which she is directed. To which the funnel is directed in, the lower part indicates its. When installing the funnel, joins the block at which the player’s gaze was directed. To direct the funnel, for example, on the chest, when installing, click on the right button on the chest, clamping Shift.
During activation, the ejector is able to move objects to the container standing in front of it (almost like a funnel).
With some containers, the funnel works in a special way:
The funnel directed to the stove on the side places items in a cell with fuel, and on top – in a cell for processing.
A funnel directed in the hob on the side places items in cells with bubbles, and on top – in a cell with ingredients.
The funnel set from below takes the finished product.
Thanks to this, you can build automatic plants for cooking potions and for removing items.
[u] Logical elements[/u] (they are [u] valves[/u], gate)
The output signal is only if it is not at the entrance.
Element and (and).
The output signal is only if it is at both entrances at the same time.
Element or (or).
There is an output signal if it is at least one of the entrances.
Pulses generators (multivibrators)
The simplest generator using the inverter:
Click delay – 1 click. If you do less, the torch andquot;Grinkleandquot;.
Cyclic pulses generators:
Repeaters do not burn out, so the frequency of pulses in such generators is quite high.
However, it is inconvenient to launch them: you need to quickly put and remove the red torch near the Redstone.
The speed of work is very high, and therefore red torches constantly burn out. But t.To. There are many torches a lot of generator continues to work, and burnt torches then start again due to the fact that Redstone is updated next to them.
On some servers, pulsaras are prohibited due to the fact that they create a load on the server computer.
Short pulses generators
In some schemes, it is necessary to turn a long impulse (or generally constant signal) into a short. The generators of short impulses help in this.
It works very simple: the red torch on the input block turns off, the signal blocking the second torch disappears, the second torch turns on. After a while, the repeater works and again turns off the second torch. Click delay: 2 – 3 clicks.
Works on the same principle. The lower version gives out a short pulse when the signal appears, and the upper option – when the signal disappears. The block hanging in the air blocks the connection between the two lines of the Redstone. You can remove it, but then you will need to put the second repeater at the entrance.
RS – trigger (English. Reset/set: reset/installation).
Remembers 1 bit of information. Blocks are inputs, and torches are outputs. When the pulse is supplied to the input, the trigger changes its condition and remains in it even after the signal at the entrance disappears.
T – trigger (English. Toggle: Switch).
Has one input and one exit. Changes its condition when an impulse is supplied to the input. That is, he divides the number of pulses passing through him by 2.
It is used in the construction of timers, automatic farms or just to make a door that opens/closes by pressing the button.
The option on the right is simpler, but it requires that the impulse of a certain duration be submitted to the input. Therefore, first the signal is supplied to the short pulses generator, and then lengthened by the repeater with a complete delay. The T – trigger on the left can work from the button, but he has a drawback: if you give a constant signal at the input, then it turns into a multivibrator. T – triggers on the pistons are deprived of this drawback. Such T – triggers have only one drawback: they are noisy.
The easiest option: just a sticky piston, which is controlled by a generator of short impulses. If the sticky piston works very quickly, then the block does not have time to move back. Instead of the redstone block, you can use a regular block, fired from below with a torch.
Second option: does not require mucus, but you need 2 pistons.
This T – trigger is the most reliable and cheap.
Tiemers are the same pulses generators, only they have a very large delay.
Each time passing by pressure rails, the trolley creates a redstone pulse. Such timers have only one advantage: the delay can be changed by adjusting the length of the rail.
There are many other timers with exotic constructions. There is a timer that uses the effect of the disappearance of discarded objects after 5 minutes. There are timers throwing objects on the web, and measuring the time of falling using stretching. But all these timers became morally outdated after the boot funnel appeared. Now we will consider the coolest timer: Timer on Hoppers.
How can you see the heart of this timer is a RS – trigger. The timer begins to work immediately after at least one subject is in the funnel. The type of objects is completely not important: it can be the earth, seeds or any other garbage. Two funnels take turns convey to each other objects that are laid down in them. If you put 1 item, the timer will work about once per second, and if you put 5 glasses (maximum), then the operation time will be 2 minutes 10 seconds. The principle of operation is very simple: the RS – trigger is set closely to the hoppers in such a way that the block is opposite in front of one funnel, and on the contrary another is the torch. The block and torch in the RS – trigger are activated in order. If the torch burns, then the left funnel is blocked, and the right funnel transfers objects to the left. When the right funnel is empty, the signal after the comparator will become zero, the torch will light up and will transfer the trigger to the opposite state. Now the left funnel will transfer items to the right funnel until it is empty, and so in a circle.
Hopperi timers are more reliable than on inverters, t.To. Torla and repeaters sometimes andquot;freezingandquot; After rebooting the server. If you need a quick and reliable pulse generator, then you can remove most of the scheme and put 1 object in Hopper:
There is an even more ingenious timer version. He gives impulses every 20 minutes, and he cannot be changed the delay. Ideal for automatic farms of reeds, watermelons, pumpkins and everything that grows.
Long pulses generators (signal extensors)
In contrast to the generators of short pulses, they make a long out of a short impulse.
The easiest option: put in a row a bunch of repeaters on a maximum delay, and draw a line from the Redstone in parallel:
Sometimes the output signal disappears for a short time. In this case, the delay on all repeaters must be made 2 clicks.
You can make a long impulse generator, a little modifying the timer on the hoppers:
All sorts of constructions
The simplest code castle:
In essence it is an element and (and) with many inputs. Some entrances are inverted, so until you install all the levers in the correct order, the door will not open.
Lava falling on water creates a stone at the site of contact. The piston, which is controlled by the multivibrator, simply removes this stone aside.
The presence of free space (1 block) under the place where the stone is formed is very important.To. Sometimes lava flows faster than water and can get in the half from where the water pours and the cobblestone forms there. Then the generator will clog and stop working.
Way to transfer items up:
A column from ejectors directed upward, which passes to each other.
Universal controller for automatic farms:
Used to control the pistons.
The signal is removed from the light sensor and enters the generators of short pulses, one of which gives the impulse upon receipt of the signal, and the other when the signal disappears. After them, the signal goes back to the generator of long impulses (just in case, so that after gathering the piston is extended to the piston for another second or two, and the crop falls where it is necessary, and not back to its former place). The harvest occurs in the morning when the light sensor turns on, and in the evening – when it turns off.
The pistons are advanced, the reed is cut down and floats on the water to the loading funnel. Of course, the crop from all automatic farms is collected not manually, but with the help of a funnel.
Farm of watermelons and pumpkins:
It works similarly.
Here, even the pistons are not needed: the cactus itself grows up, and having discovered a solid block (fence) next to it is cut down.
Potion production plant:
You can see droppers, a timer on funnels and a signal extension cord. How to explain the plant for a long time, easier to download (link below) and see yourself.
Good tutorial on the Redstone on Minecraft wiki: [u] link[/u]
End =) Now you know how the Redstone really works, and what really useful things can be built from it. Next time, having found Redstone in the dark and deep cave, do not forget to get it – it will come in handy. =)
You can download the file with the world where the above designs are built to poke in them near and see how they work.
[u] World 1[/u] – short impulses, timers, triggers, etc.D.
[u] World 2[/u] – factory for the production of all (automatic farms of watermelons, mushrooms, etc.D.)